Israel carried out an airstrike against Damascus international airport and other positions south of the Syrian capital, in an incident that killed five soldiers and caused material damage, the local Defense Ministry reported.
Syrian air defenses intercepted the attack and managed to shoot down most of the missiles, a ministry statement said.
There was no immediate confirmation as to whether the bombardment disrupted airport operations.
Israel has stepped up attacks on Syrian airports to disrupt the growing use of Iranian supply flights, which deliver weapons to allies in Syria and Lebanon, including the Hezbollah group, diplomatic and intelligence sources in the region have told Reuters.
Tehran has embraced airlift as a more reliable means of delivering military equipment to its allied forces and fighters in Syria, following blockades on their ground movements.
Hundreds of thousands of people have died and millions have been left homeless since protests against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad in 2011 turned into a civil war that implicated powers and left Syria divided into zones of control.