Do you remember the movie Interstellar (2014) or even “Event Horizon” (1997)? In these films the human is able to jump into a wormhole and emerge in a totally different galaxy, in another area of the universe. And it is that wormholes represent a fascinating concept in physics that presents some very particular tunnels that connect two different points in space-time.
A basic pillar of science fiction
However, most of the main hypotheses surrounding wormholes suggest that they would collapse as soon as they were formed due to their instability – as shown in the Another Life (2019) series -. However, a new theory postulates that these Einstein-Rosen bridges can remain stable enough so that objects enter one side and exit the other, that is, they can be used as shortcuts through space-time.
This theoretical interstellar phenomenon works by tunneling between two distant points in space. In the new work, by physicist Pascal Koiran of the École normale supérieure de Lyon (France), he analyzed this figure using a different set of techniques and found that a particle could be documented crossing the event horizon into the wormhole. , traverse it and reach the other side in a finite period of time . If a particle can get through a wormhole safely, humans could also get through it with a spaceship and reach a distant planet in a distant galaxy.
The rules of physics are fixed, but there is freedom in the way coordinates are described mathematically, which are known as metrics .
To reach this conclusion, Koiran did not use the Schwartzchild metric (which describes the gravitational field outside of a spherical mass, assuming that the electric charge of the mass, the angular momentum of the mass, and the universal cosmological constant are all zero), but the Eddington-Finkelstein metric , in which a pair of black holes are used, although with some variation.
The mirror image of a black hole, the white hole . The black hole does not allow anything to go out – no object can escape the attraction of a black hole – and the white hole – in theory, as they have not yet been discovered – does not allow anything to enter. To make a wormhole, just take a black hole and a white hole and join their singularities (the points of infinite densities at their centers). This creates a tunnel through space-time. Thus, with this coordinate system used in the geometry of black holes, the researcher found that when the Eddington-Finkelstein metric was used, a particle could be seen crossing the event horizon towards the wormhole, going through the wormhole. and come out the other side. He was then able to trace the path through a wormhole using this metric with greater precision than is possible with the Schwartzchild metric, concluding that the wormhole was stable, without the need for the exotic matter to remain open.
Of course, this does not necessarily mean that jumping through any black hole will transport us across the universe . However, it raises a very interesting theory that shows that wormholes would not instantly collapse as soon as they arise.
Referencia: Infall time in the Eddington-Finkelstein metric, with application to Einstein-Rosen bridges Pascal Koiran
To appear in International Journal of Modern Physics D
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology (gr-qc)
(or arXiv:2110.05938v1 [gr-qc] for this version)