Tech UPTechnologyHow to know if an artificial intelligence is intelligent

How to know if an artificial intelligence is intelligent

Determining that an artificial intelligence is more intelligent than a human being is very difficult because we cannot even define human intelligence with precision, therefore there are several complementary tests to evaluate the intelligence of a machine .

From this field of research, an artificial intelligence that could develop any intellectual task with a solvency superior to the human one would be classified as a general artificial intelligence (AGI). At the moment, no one has managed to design such an intelligence (although some researchers maintain that a few years ago one of the necessary tests, the so-called Turing Test, was passed).

In order to consider that a system is an operational example of this type of general intelligence, the machine would have to pass the following tests.

Humanity test

The coffee test : basically, it consists of the machine demonstrating the ability to access a house and find out how to prepare a cup of coffee. In this way, the machine must be able to locate the coffee maker, find the coffee, add water, find a cup, and a whole series of small operations that for a human being are even intuitive, but that for a machine require a large amount. of calculations.

The test was developed by Ben Goertzel , a pioneer researcher in the IAG study, and highlights the so-called Moravec paradox : some tasks that are difficult for humans (such as multiplying very high figures) do not entail any difficulty for a machine, but other very simple actions, even performed by a child, such as folding clothes, require large amounts of calculations.

The reason for this paradox is that there are tasks that can be organized in simple orders, very specific instructions (like chess), and others, however, have many variables, such as walking through a room full of obstacles. This principle was postulated by Hans Moravec , Rodney Brooks , Marvin Minsky and others in the 1980s. Moravec stated: “It is comparatively easy to get computers to display capabilities similar to those of an adult human in intelligence tests, and difficult or impossible get them to have the perceptual and motor skills of a one-year-old baby. “

The university student test : it consists in that the system has to attend a university course, learn the lessons taught, and be able to pass the same exams as those taken by human students. The test was also developed by Ben Goertzel and highlights all the complexity that underlies learning new things using knowledge that is already mastered.

Proof of employment : the system must be capable of performing economically important work as efficiently as a human. The test was developed by Nils Nilsson , considered one of the fathers of AI, and today there are already some examples that could be considered in sectors such as automotive or industry. In its 2017 Employment Outlook report, the OECD estimates that 11.7% of jobs in Spain have a high probability of being automated in the coming years.

The Turing test : proposed by Alan Turing, it consists of evaluating a human on a natural language conversation between the system and a person. The human must be unable to detect who is the machine and who is the person. While there are some Turing tests that a machine can pass, it always fails in the long run because the understanding of natural language is still very partial on the part of the machine.

There are versions of the Turing Test that we see daily, such as the Captcha ( Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Computers and Humans Apart , public and automatic Turing test to differentiate machines and humans): those twisted letters or questions of the type “two plus two” that protect forms on the internet.

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