All the planets in the solar system experience different weather conditions and seasons, but they are different from the conventional system of spring, summer, fall, and winter that we are used to on Earth. From centuries-old hurricanes on Jupiter to immense winds on Neptune, if we leave Earth the weather is anything but boring. While the terms “winter” and “summer” were coined on Earth, they can be applied in describing weather conditions on other planets.
It may seem that the weather system is different in various parts of the world, but in reality, the variation in climate experienced on Earth is very small.
Because it is so close to the Sun, extreme temperatures make it quite inhospitable. During the day, we would be very surprised if the Sun would appear three times larger than normal and more than 10 times brighter than here on Earth. At night, temperatures drop sharply.
Temperature on Mercury: maximum 427°C and minimum -184°C
Venus has a dense acidic atmosphere, which produces a greenhouse effect, keeping temperatures extremely high throughout the year. The atmosphere is made up of 97% carbon dioxide and the clouds are in constant swirling motion. As if this were not enough, the rain falls in the form of sulfuric acid from the clouds, but it does not reach the surface because it evaporates first. Venus has shorter seasons than Earth and only slight variations in temperatures and general weather conditions.
Temperature en Venus: mean 453°C
The average temperature on Earth is 15°C.
The climate on Mars is quite different from that of Earth but, even so, its atmosphere and climate are more similar to that of Earth than any other planet. The Martian climate is relatively colder than Earth’s (down to -195 degrees Fahrenheit) and often features large dust storms that cover the entire planet. However, despite being a frigid desert prone to violent storms, NASA scientists often point to the red planet as the most suitable for possible future planetary colonization. Habitability here is more likely than on any other planet in our solar system.
Martian temperature: maximum 20 oC (in summer) and minimum -129°C (average are about -50oC)
On Jupiter (and also on Saturn) there are some colossal-sized storms, larger than the diameter of several Earths, that have been raging for decades or even centuries. In fact, the Great Red Spot is the most outstanding feature of this gaseous planet. The giant spinning storm is comparable to a hurricane on Earth, though considerably larger. About two and a half times the diameter of the Earth. Although it is not the only storm that Jupiter has. The entire planet is covered in bands of swirling clouds high in the atmosphere.
Temperature on Jupiter: mean -163 oC
Saturn is very cold. It has a frozen climate. More than Jupiter. To find a slightly more familiar climate we have to turn our gaze to Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Although still too cold, scientists believe that Titan experiences seasons, has rainy clouds, and has an atmosphere made up of mostly molecular nitrogen (90%) and a small percentage of methane.
Temperature en Saturno: average -176 ºC
Its unusual inclination causes unusual climatic conditions on the planet. The temperature remains cold throughout the year. The atmosphere is deep and is composed of hydrogen and helium. Methane is also present and absorbs red light giving the planet a bluish appearance.
Temperature on Uranus: -218 ºC
In the ice giant Neptune you will find the fastest winds in the solar system and, as we have already anticipated, it is also very cold. Neptune has a thick atmosphere and is covered by ever-changing clouds that whip around the planet.
Temperature on Neptune: -218 ºC
Reference: NASA / Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC) / National Research Council